How to Prove: 1930’s Housing Discrimination Shapes Today

Tracie’s Paternal Grandparents

312 Westwood, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Home of Tracie McMillan’s paternal grandparents in Ann Arbor, 1936-1998

1936: Deed and racial restriction providing that this property:

“shall not be sold to, leased to, or otherwise become the property of any Negro or persons of African descent.”

B.E. Taylor Sub / Hubbell Street

Home where Tracie McMillan’s paternal grandfather, John Allan McMillan, lived with his uncle Norman Carter, in Detroit, approximately 1930-1936

1919: Document showing the restrictions for properties owned by B. E. Taylor.

The restrictions for Monmoor subdivision #1 do not include any racial restrictions, though other subdivisions do have racial restrictions, stating “said premises shall not be sold or leased to or occupied by, any person other than of the Caucasian race.”

1929: A subdivisions map of Detroit,

Shows that 14255 Hubbell Street was in Monmoor subdivision #1

1930: Census enumeration sheets for District 0841 and District 0842,
  • These show that even without racial restrictions in the subdivision, the neighborhood containing 14255 Hubbell Street was all white in 1930.
  • Also shows that Tracie’s paternal grandfather, John Allen McMillan lived at this address in 1930.

1948: Deed showing the sale of 14255 Hubbell by Norman Carter

Tracie’s Maternal Grandparents

211 Oneida

Home of Tracie McMillan’a maternal grandparents, the Weddles, in Pontiac, 1952-1961

1930: FHA and VA loans discriminate
1945: Racist covenants allowed
  • 1945: Deed and racial restriction providing that premises “shall not be sold, assigned, leased or rented to anyone other than a person of the Caucasian race.”
1946: Racial discrimination in mortgages
1948: Enforcement of racist covenants declared unconstitutional
  • 1948: Supreme Court outlaws racial covenants in Shelley v. Kramer, providing: “Private agreements to exclude persons of designated race or color from the use or occupancy of real estate for residential purposes do not violate the Fourteenth Amendment; but it is violative of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment for state courts to enforce them.”
1952: Weddles buy home with racial restrictions and discriminatory mortgage company
1960: Census tract for the home is 99.75% white
1968: Fair Housing Act
  • Housing discrimination now against federal law, census tract is 97.53% white and 1.2% Black
1970: Census tract is 96.5% white and 1.2% Black
1980: Census tract is 70.75% white and 25.8% Black
1990: Census tract is 63.0% white and 33.4% Black

4056 Iverness Lane, Orchard Lake, Michigan

Home of Tracie McMillan’a maternal grandparents, the Weddles, in Pontiac, 1961-2012

Date Unknown: Brochure for subdivision containing 4056 Iverness lane, Pine Lake Estates, promoting the “right” address

1961: Deeds for 4056 Iverness

Mortgage held by First Federal Savings and Loan Association of Detroit

1963:  “Police Arrest 18 in Detroit Sit-In”

A sit-in was held at First Federal Savings and Loan in Detroit protesting discrimination in hiring and granting of mortgages. Protesters had to be carried out on police stretchers. 8 of the demonstrators were white, the rest were Black. 15 were convicted of disturbing the peace and trespassing.

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